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This one is about: Statistics; Increase in Birth Defects 1979 - 1987


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[2] Rolv Terje Lie and others, "A Population-Based Study of the Risk of Recurrence of Birth Defects," NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Vol. 331, No. 1 (July 7, 1994), pgs. 1-4.

=================================================================
                            TABLE 1
Birth Defects: Annual Percent Change in Occurrence During 7-year
Period, 1979-80 to 1986-87, United States
=================================================================
.                                                          Annual
.                                       Number of         Percent
.                                      defects per      change in
DEFECT TYPE                           10,000 births   occurrence,
.                                  ------------------  1979-80 to
.                                  1979-80    1986-87     1986-87

FACIAL CLEFTS
Cleft palate without cleft lip         5.05      5.33       0.8%
Cleft lip                              7.76      9.35       2.7%

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
Hydrocephalus without spina bifida
.   (fluid in the skull)               4.34      5.84       4.3%
Encephalocele (gap in the skull)       1.10      1.16       0.8%
Microcephalus (small head)             2.12      2.61       3.0%
..
EYES
Anophthalmos (absence of eyes)         0.57      0.68       2.6%
Congenital cataract
.   (eye cataracts at birth)           0.71      1.02       5.3%
Coloboma of eye (eye parts missing)    0.21      0.40       9.6%
Aniridia (absence of the iris)         0.07      0.10       5.2%
..
HEART
Common truncus
.   (undeveloped main arteries)9       0.19      0.40      11.2%
Transposition of great arteries
.   (reversal of main arteries)        0.87      1.45       7.6%
Tetralogy of Fallot
.   (4 common defects simultaneously)  0.73      1.82      13.9%
Ventricular septal defect
.   (opening between lower chambers)  11.34     20.49       8.8%
Atrial septal defect
.   (opening between upper chambers)   1.16      3.69      18.0%
Endocardial cushion defect             0.34      0.95      15.8%
Pulmonary valve atresia and stenosis
.   (obstructed blood flow)            0.58      3.44      29.0%
Tricuspid valve atresia and stenosis
.   (obstructed blood flow)            0.16      0.36      12.3%
Aortic valve stenosis and atresia
.   (obstructed blood flow)            0.22      0.79      20.0%
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
.   (undeveloped left side)            0.56      1.25      12.2%
Patent ductus arteriosus
.   (pulmonary artery open to aorta)  17.87     35.43      10.3%
Coarctation of aorta
.   (constriction of the aorta)        0.74      1.15       6.5%
Pulmonary artery anomaly               1.12      2.66      13.2%
Lung agenesis and hypoplasia
.   (undeveloped lungs)                1.66      3.84      12.7%
..
GASTROINTESTINAL
Tracheoesophageal anomalies
.   (upper airway problems)            1.86      2.49       4.3%
Rectal and intestinal atresia
.   (blockage)                         3.23      3.80       2.3%
..
GENITOURINARY
Renal agenesis and hypoplasia
.   (one kidney or small kidneys)      1.23      2.34       9.6%
Bladder exstrophy
.   (gap in abdomen,
.    revealing bladder)                0.29      0.33       1.9%
..
MUSCULOSKELETAL
Reduction deformity, upper limbs
.   (arms deformed or missing)         1.53      1.58       0.5%
Reduction deformity, lower limbs
.  (legs deformed or missing)          0.78      0.83       0.9%
Congenital arthrogryposis
.   (contracted or bent limbs)         1.33      1.93       5.5%
..
===========
Source: Larry D. Edmonds and others, "Temporal Trends in the Prevalence of Congenital Malformations at Birth Based on the Birth Defects Monitoring Program, United States, 1979-1987," MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY WEEKLY REPORT, CDC SURVEILLANCE SUMMARIES Vol. 39, No. SS-4 (December, 1990), pg. 22.


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