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Pesticides & Herbicides & Insecticides

   This list researched and compiled by Andrea Newmark Simon Feb 1997

(If using this information you must keep these credits on this)

  - Can be inhaled or absorbed by skin, or eaten if it was used on a plant
    (produce, wheat, vegetables) or in animal feed (then you eat the animal).
  - If sprayed on a neighbor's yard, wind can move it to your yard,
    you can breathe it, absorb it on skin, or walk in it, go inside -
    carrying it onto your carpet, where it stays for longer periods of time
  - Some are metabolized by the body fairly quickly, others stay around in
    fat cells. Each of the following is different.

The following were noted to cause clefting in animals at various doses:

ABAMECTIN -- pesticide
Also known as Avermectin B1 and MK-936. Trade names include Affirm, Agri-Mek, Avid, Dynamec, Vertimec and Zephyr.

Abamectin has produced cleft palate in the offspring of treated mice and rabbits, but only at doses that were also toxic to the mothers. There were no birth defects in the offspring of rats given up to 1 mg/kg/day

CYANIZINE -- herbicide
Trade names include Bladex, DW3418, Fortrol,and Payze.

Cyanazine may be used in combinbation with other herbicides. By 1985 ninety-six percent of cyanazine was used on corn, three percent on cotton, and less than one percent on grain sorghum and wheat fallow (7).

Classified by the EPA as a Restricted Use Pesticide and has been found in groundwater Cyanazine can cause a wide range of birth defects in animals over a wide range of doses.

DEMETON-S-METHYL - use no longer allowed in US
Trade names for products containing demeton-s-methyl include Meta-Systox I, Meta-isosystox, Azotox, Bay-18436, Bay-25/154, DSM, Duratox, Metasystox 55, Mifatox, and Persyst (1, 2).

DINOCAP -- pesticide [Does cause birth defects in people]
Absorbed through inhalation & skin

Trade Names: Arathane, Caprane, Capryl, Cekucap 25 WP, Crotonate, Crotothane, DCPC, Dikar (a mixture of dinocap and mancozeb), DNOPC, Ezenosan, Iscothane, Karathane, Mildane, Mildex.

"EPA has determined that dinocap has caused birth defects in animals and poses a teratogenic risk to humans. It is teratogenic at doses lower than those which cause toxic effects in pregnant mothers. Pregnant women should avoid exposure to dinocap. Exposure, especially by inhalation or dermal absorption, may put unborn offspring at significant risk of birth defects."

HEXACHLOROBENZENE -- fungicide often used on seed treatment in wheat, for bunt, Use is banned in US.
Trade names for this product include HCB, Anticarie, Ceku C.B., and No Bunt. This compound should not be confused with benzene hexachloride (hexachlorocyclohexane, HCH), also known as lindane. This compound also has non-pesticidal industrial uses.

It is possible that the compound could cause birth defects in human populations chronically exposed.

MCPA -- herbicide and pesticide, used to control annual and perennial weeds (including thistle and dock) in cereals,
grasslands, trees and turf. Restricted use in US.
Trade names for some of the products containing MCPA are Agritox, Agroxone, Chiptox, Rhonox, and Weed-Rhap. This herbicide may be used in formulations with many other types of pesticides including 2,4-D, dicamba, MCPB, bromoxynil, mecoprop and bentazone.

PCNB -- organochlorine fungicide used for seed and soil treatments at planting. Most products containing PCNB have been cancelled for use in the United States.

Trade names for products containing PCNB include Avicol, Botrilex, Folsan, Saniclor, Terraclor, Tubergran and Turcide. The fungicide is often used in combination with  insecticides and fungicides including carbaryl, imazalil, tridimenol, etridiazole and fuberidazole.

THIRAM -- general use pesticide, residues are on food.

The full chemical name for thiram is tetramethylthiuram disulfide. Common names include thiram (USA), thiuram (Japan), and TMTD (USSR), TMT and TMTDS. Trade names include AAtack, Arasan, Aules, Fermide 850, Fernasan, FMC 2070, Hexathir, Mercuram, Micropearls, Nomersan, Pomarsol, Puralin, Rezifilm, Rhodiasan Express, Spotrete, Tersan, Thiosan, Thiotex, Thiramad, TMTD 50 Borches, Thirasan, Thirame, Thiuramin, Tiuramyl, Tirampa, TMTC, Trametan, Tuads and Tulisan (1, 5)

THIABENDAZOLE -- is a systemic benzimidazole fungicide used to control fruit and vegetable diseases such as mold, rot, blight and stain. It is also active against storage diseases and Dutch Elm disease. In livestock, thiabendazole is also applied to treat roundworms. Thiabendazole is also used medicinally as a chelating agent to bind metals.

Trade names for products containing this compound include Apl-Luster, TBZ, Mertect, Mycozol, Tecto and Thibenzole. The product is often used in combination with other fungicides and insecticides.

TRIADIMEFON - general use pesticide, in some fungicides

Trade names for products containing triadimefon include Amiral, Bay MEB 6447, and Bayleton. The compound may also be found in formulations with other fungicides such as captan, carbendazim, folpet, dodine, and propineb (1).


Lupine plant -- when eaten by cows causes 'crooked calf' which includes cleft palate as part of the defects


made from Retinoic Acid
Brand Name: TEGISON
Generic Name: ETRETINATE

Etretinate (TigasanR), a retinoid prescribed for treatment of psoriasis

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